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Normal Equine Vital Signs:
Heart rate 32 - 44 Beats a minute
Respiratory Rate 12-20 breaths a minute
Temperature 99.55-101.5 degrees
Mucous Membrane Color Pink
CRT (Capillary Refill Time-pressing finger on gum above the front teeth and seeing how long it takes for color to return) Less than 2 seconds
Skin turgor (Skin Elasticity- pinching skin and seeing how long it takes to return to normal) Less than 1 second
Hoof Temperature Luke Warm

Before anything goes wrong you'll want to become familiar with the horse's vital signs. Take your horse's pulse, respiration and temperature over a few days at different times of the day to give you average rates.

Another thing to watch for is:

A healthy horse has a good appetite, sleek coat, and is alert.